Stage2

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jackson
Posts: 14
Joined: Sat Aug 06, 2011 7:52 pm

Stage2

Post by jackson » Sun Aug 28, 2011 8:27 pm

What's the problem with my code

Heres Stage2.asm


;Stage2.asm

bits 16

org 0x500


jmp Main


%include "GDT.inc"



bits 16

Print16:
pusha
.Loop1:
lodsb
or al, al
jz Puts16Done
mov ah, 0eh
int 10h
jmp .Loop1
Puts16Done:
popa
ret

bits 32

%define VIDMEM 0xB8000
%define COLS 80
%define LINES 25
%define CHAR_ATTRIB 63

_CurX db 0
_CurY db 0

Putch32:

pusha
mov edi, VIDMEM


xor eax, eax ; clear eax

mov ecx, COLS*2 ; Mode 7 has 2 bytes per char, so its COLS*2 bytes per line
mov al, byte [_CurY] ; get y pos
mul ecx ; multiply y*COLS
push eax ; save eax--the multiplication

;--------------------------------
; Now y * screen width is in eax. Now, just add _CurX. But, again remember that _CurX is relative
; to the current character count, not byte count. Because there are two bytes per character, we
; have to multiply _CurX by 2 first, then add it to our screen width * y.
;--------------------------------

mov al, byte [_CurX] ; multiply _CurX by 2 because it is 2 bytes per char
mov cl, 2
mul cl
pop ecx ; pop y*COLS result
add eax, ecx

;-------------------------------
; Now eax contains the offset address to draw the character at, so just add it to the base address
; of video memory (Stored in edi)
;-------------------------------

xor ecx, ecx
add edi, eax ; add it to the base address

;-------------------------------;
; Watch for new line ;
;-------------------------------;

cmp bl, 0x0A ; is it a newline character?
je .Row ; yep--go to next row

;-------------------------------;
; Print a character ;
;-------------------------------;

mov dl, bl ; Get character
mov dh, CHAR_ATTRIB ; the character attribute
mov word [edi], dx ; write to video display

;-------------------------------;
; Update next position ;
;-------------------------------;

inc byte [_CurX] ; go to next character
; cmp byte [_CurX], COLS ; are we at the end of the line?
; je .Row ; yep-go to next row
jmp .done ; nope, bail out

;-------------------------------;
; Go to next row ;
;-------------------------------;

.Row:
mov byte [_CurX], 0 ; go back to col 0
inc byte [_CurY] ; go to next row

;-------------------------------;
; Restore registers & return ;
;-------------------------------;

.done:
popa ; restore registers and return
ret

;**************************************************;
; Puts32 ()
; - Prints a null terminated string
; parm\ EBX = address of string to print
;**************************************************;

Print32:

;-------------------------------;
; Store registers ;
;-------------------------------;

pusha ; save registers
push ebx ; copy the string address
pop edi

.loop:

;-------------------------------;
; Get character ;
;-------------------------------;

mov bl, byte [edi] ; get next character
cmp bl, 0 ; is it 0 (Null terminator)?
je .done ; yep-bail out

;-------------------------------;
; Print the character ;
;-------------------------------;

call Putch32 ; Nope-print it out

;-------------------------------;
; Go to next character ;
;-------------------------------;

inc edi ; go to next character
jmp .loop

.done:

;-------------------------------;
; Update hardware cursor ;
;-------------------------------;

; Its more efficiant to update the cursor after displaying
; the complete string because direct VGA is slow

mov bh, byte [_CurY] ; get current position
mov bl, byte [_CurX]
call MovCur ; update cursor

popa ; restore registers, and return
ret

;**************************************************;
; MoveCur ()
; - Update hardware cursor
; parm/ bh = Y pos
; parm/ bl = x pos
;**************************************************;

bits 32

MovCur:

pusha ; save registers (aren't you getting tired of this comment?)

;-------------------------------;
; Get current position ;
;-------------------------------;

; Here, _CurX and _CurY are relitave to the current position on screen, not in memory.
; That is, we don't need to worry about the byte alignment we do when displaying characters,
; so just follow the forumla: location = _CurX + _CurY * COLS

xor eax, eax
mov ecx, COLS
mov al, bh ; get y pos
mul ecx ; multiply y*COLS
add al, bl ; Now add x
mov ebx, eax

;--------------------------------------;
; Set low byte index to VGA register ;
;--------------------------------------;

mov al, 0x0f
mov dx, 0x03D4
out dx, al

mov al, bl
mov dx, 0x03D5
out dx, al ; low byte

;---------------------------------------;
; Set high byte index to VGA register ;
;---------------------------------------;

xor eax, eax

mov al, 0x0e
mov dx, 0x03D4
out dx, al

mov al, bh
mov dx, 0x03D5
out dx, al ; high byte

popa
ret

;**************************************************;
; ClrScr32 ()
; - Clears screen
;**************************************************;

bits 32

ClrScr32:

pusha
cld
mov edi, VIDMEM
mov cx, 2000
mov ah, CHAR_ATTRIB
mov al, ' '
rep stosw

mov byte [_CurX], 0
mov byte [_CurY], 0
popa
ret

;**************************************************;
; GotoXY ()
; - Set current X/Y location
; parm\ AL=X position
; parm\ AH=Y position
;**************************************************;

bits 32

GotoXY:
pusha
mov [_CurX], al ; just set the current position
mov [_CurY], ah
popa
ret

bpbOEM db "My OS "
bpbBytesPerSector: DW 512
bpbSectorsPerCluster: DB 1
bpbReservedSectors: DW 1
bpbNumberOfFATs: DB 2
bpbRootEntries: DW 224
bpbTotalSectors: DW 2880
bpbMedia: DB 0xf0 ;; 0xF1
bpbSectorsPerFAT: DW 9
bpbSectorsPerTrack: DW 18
bpbHeadsPerCylinder: DW 2
bpbHiddenSectors: DD 0
bpbTotalSectorsBig: DD 0
bsDriveNumber: DB 0
bsUnused: DB 0
bsExtBootSignature: DB 0x29
bsSerialNumber: DD 0xa0a1a2a3
bsVolumeLabel: DB "MOS FLOPPY "
bsFileSystem: DB "FAT12 "

datasector dw 0x0000
cluster dw 0x0000

absoluteSector db 0x00
absoluteHead db 0x00
absoluteTrack db 0x00

;************************************************;
; Convert CHS to LBA
; LBA = (cluster - 2) * sectors per cluster
;************************************************;

ClusterLBA:
sub ax, 0x0002 ; zero base cluster number
xor cx, cx
mov cl, BYTE [bpbSectorsPerCluster] ; convert byte to word
mul cx
add ax, WORD [datasector] ; base data sector
ret

;************************************************;
; Convert LBA to CHS
; AX=>LBA Address to convert
;
; absolute sector = (logical sector / sectors per track) + 1
; absolute head = (logical sector / sectors per track) MOD number of heads
; absolute track = logical sector / (sectors per track * number of heads)
;
;************************************************;

LBACHS:
xor dx, dx ; prepare dx:ax for operation
div WORD [bpbSectorsPerTrack] ; calculate
inc dl ; adjust for sector 0
mov BYTE [absoluteSector], dl
xor dx, dx ; prepare dx:ax for operation
div WORD [bpbHeadsPerCylinder] ; calculate
mov BYTE [absoluteHead], dl
mov BYTE [absoluteTrack], al
ret


;************************************************;
; Reads a series of sectors
; CX=>Number of sectors to read
; AX=>Starting sector
; ES:EBX=>Buffer to read to
;************************************************;

ReadSectors:
.MAIN:
mov di, 0x0005 ; five retries for error
.SECTORLOOP:
push ax
push bx
push cx
call LBACHS ; convert starting sector to CHS
mov ah, 0x02 ; BIOS read sector
mov al, 0x01 ; read one sector
mov ch, BYTE [absoluteTrack] ; track
mov cl, BYTE [absoluteSector] ; sector
mov dh, BYTE [absoluteHead] ; head
mov dl, BYTE [bsDriveNumber] ; drive
int 0x13 ; invoke BIOS
jnc .SUCCESS ; test for read error
xor ax, ax ; BIOS reset disk
int 0x13 ; invoke BIOS
dec di ; decrement error counter
pop cx
pop bx
pop ax
jnz .SECTORLOOP ; attempt to read again
int 0x18
.SUCCESS:
pop cx
pop bx
pop ax
add bx, WORD [bpbBytesPerSector] ; queue next buffer
inc ax ; queue next sector
loop .MAIN ; read next sector
ret

%define ROOT_OFFSET 0x2e00
%define FAT_SEG 0x2c0
%define ROOT_SEG 0x2e0

;*******************************************
; LoadRoot ()
; - Load Root Directory Table to 0x7e00
;*******************************************

LoadRoot:

pusha ; store registers
push es

; compute size of root directory and store in "cx"

xor cx, cx ; clear registers
xor dx, dx
mov ax, 32 ; 32 byte directory entry
mul WORD [bpbRootEntries] ; total size of directory
div WORD [bpbBytesPerSector] ; sectors used by directory
xchg ax, cx ; move into AX

; compute location of root directory and store in "ax"

mov al, BYTE [bpbNumberOfFATs] ; number of FATs
mul WORD [bpbSectorsPerFAT] ; sectors used by FATs
add ax, WORD [bpbReservedSectors]
mov WORD [datasector], ax ; base of root directory
add WORD [datasector], cx

; read root directory into 0x7e00

push word ROOT_SEG
pop es
mov bx, 0 ; copy root dir
call ReadSectors ; read in directory table
pop es
popa ; restore registers and return
ret

;*******************************************
; LoadFAT ()
; - Loads FAT table to 0x7c00
;
; Parm/ ES:DI => Root Directory Table
;*******************************************

LoadFAT:

pusha ; store registers
push es

; compute size of FAT and store in "cx"

xor ax, ax
mov al, BYTE [bpbNumberOfFATs] ; number of FATs
mul WORD [bpbSectorsPerFAT] ; sectors used by FATs
mov cx, ax

; compute location of FAT and store in "ax"

mov ax, WORD [bpbReservedSectors]

; read FAT into memory (Overwrite our bootloader at 0x7c00)

push word FAT_SEG
pop es
xor bx, bx
call ReadSectors
pop es
popa ; restore registers and return
ret

;*******************************************
; FindFile ()
; - Search for filename in root table
;
; parm/ DS:SI => File name
; ret/ AX => File index number in directory table. -1 if error
;*******************************************

FindFile:

push cx ; store registers
push dx
push bx
mov bx, si ; copy filename for later

; browse root directory for binary image

mov cx, WORD [bpbRootEntries] ; load loop counter
mov di, ROOT_OFFSET ; locate first root entry at 1 MB mark
cld ; clear direction flag

.LOOP:
push cx
mov cx, 11 ; eleven character name. Image name is in SI
mov si, bx ; image name is in BX
push di
rep cmpsb ; test for entry match
pop di
je .Found
pop cx
add di, 32 ; queue next directory entry
loop .LOOP

.NotFound:
pop bx ; restore registers and return
pop dx
pop cx
mov ax, -1 ; set error code
ret

.Found:
pop ax ; return value into AX contains entry of file
pop bx ; restore registers and return
pop dx
pop cx
ret

LoadFile:

xor ecx, ecx ; size of file in sectors
push ecx

.FIND_FILE:

push bx ; BX=>BP points to buffer to write to; store it for later
push bp
call FindFile ; find our file. ES:SI contains our filename
cmp ax, -1
jne .LOAD_IMAGE_PRE
pop bp
pop bx
pop ecx
mov ax, -1
ret

.LOAD_IMAGE_PRE:

sub edi, ROOT_OFFSET
sub eax, ROOT_OFFSET

; get starting cluster

push word ROOT_SEG ;root segment loc
pop es
mov dx, WORD [es:di + 0x001A]; DI points to file entry in root directory table. Refrence the table...
mov WORD [cluster], dx ; file's first cluster
pop bx ; get location to write to so we dont screw up the stack
pop es
push bx ; store location for later again
push es
call LoadFAT

.LOAD_IMAGE:

; load the cluster

mov ax, WORD [cluster] ; cluster to read
pop es ; bx:bp=es:bx
pop bx
call ClusterLBA
xor cx, cx
mov cl, BYTE [bpbSectorsPerCluster]
call ReadSectors
pop ecx
inc ecx ; add one more sector to counter
push ecx
push bx
push es
mov ax, FAT_SEG ;start reading from fat
mov es, ax
xor bx, bx

; get next cluster

mov ax, WORD [cluster] ; identify current cluster
mov cx, ax ; copy current cluster
mov dx, ax
shr dx, 0x0001 ; divide by two
add cx, dx ; sum for (3/2)

mov bx, 0 ;location of fat in memory
add bx, cx
mov dx, WORD [es:bx]
test ax, 0x0001 ; test for odd or even cluster
jnz .ODD_CLUSTER

.EVEN_CLUSTER:

and dx, 0000111111111111b ; take low 12 bits
jmp .DONE

.ODD_CLUSTER:

shr dx, 0x0004 ; take high 12 bits

.DONE:

mov WORD [cluster], dx
cmp dx, 0x0ff0 ; test for end of file marker
jb .LOAD_IMAGE

.SUCCESS:
pop es
pop bx
pop ecx
xor ax, ax
ret

%define PMODE_BASE 0x100000

%define RMODE_BASE 0x3000

ImageName db "KRNL SYS"

ImageSize db 0


EnableA20_KKbrd:

cli
push ax
mov al, 0xdd ; send enable a20 address line command to controller
out 0x64, al
pop ax
ret

;--------------------------------------------
; Enables a20 line through output port
;--------------------------------------------

EnableA20_KKbrd_Out:

cli
pusha

call wait_input
mov al,0xAD
out 0x64,al ; disable keyboard
call wait_input

mov al,0xD0
out 0x64,al ; tell controller to read output port
call wait_output

in al,0x60
push eax ; get output port data and store it
call wait_input

mov al,0xD1
out 0x64,al ; tell controller to write output port
call wait_input

pop eax
or al,2 ; set bit 1 (enable a20)
out 0x60,al ; write out data back to the output port

call wait_input
mov al,0xAE ; enable keyboard
out 0x64,al

call wait_input
popa
sti
ret

; wait for input buffer to be clear

wait_input:
in al,0x64
test al,2
jnz wait_input
ret

; wait for output buffer to be clear

wait_output:
in al,0x64
test al,1
jz wait_output
ret

;--------------------------------------
; Enables a20 line through bios
;--------------------------------------

EnableA20_Bios:
pusha
mov ax, 0x2401
int 0x15
popa
ret

;-------------------------------------------------
; Enables a20 line through system control port A
;-------------------------------------------------

EnableA20_SysControlA:
push ax
mov al, 2
out 0x92, al
pop ax
ret

Booting db "Loading Kernel...", 0x0A, 0x0D, 0
Failure db "FATAL ERROR: KRNL.SYS does not exist...", 0x0A, 0x0D, 0

Main:
mov si, Booting
call Print16
cli
xor ax, ax
mov ds, ax
mov es, ax
mov ax, 0x0
mov ss, ax
mov sp, 0xFFFF
sti

SetUp:
call InstallGDT

call EnableA20_KKbrd_Out

call LoadRoot

mov ebx, 0
mov bp, RMODE_BASE
mov si, ImageName

call LoadFile


mov dword [ImageSize], ecx
cmp ax, 0
je StartStage3
mov si, Failure
call Print16
mov ah, 0
int 16
int 19
cli
hlt

StartStage3:

cli
mov eax, cr0
or eax, 1
mov cr0, eax

jmp CODE_DESC:Stage3


bits 32

Stage3:
mov ax, DATA_DESC
mov ds, ax
mov ss, ax
mov es, ax
mov esp, 90000h

CopyImage:
mov eax, dword [ImageSize]
movzx ebx, word [bpbBytesPerSector]
mul ebx
mov ebx, 4
div ebx
cld
mov esi, RMODE_BASE
mov edi, PMODE_BASE
mov ecx, eax
rep movsd


jmp CODE_DESC:PMODE_BASE

cli
hlt


here's GDT.inc

%ifndef __GDT_INC_67343546FDCC56AAB872_INCLUDED__
%define __GDT_INC_67343546FDCC56AAB872_INCLUDED__

bits 16

InstallGDT:

cli
pusha
lgdt [toc]
sti
popa
ret

gdt_data:
dd 0
dd 0

; gdt code:
dw 0FFFFh
dw 0
db 0
db 10011010b
db 11001111b
db 0

; gdt data:
dw 0FFFFh
dw 0
db 0
db 10010010b
db 11001111b
db 0

end_of_gdt:
toc:
dw end_of_gdt - gdt_data - 1
dd gdt_data

%define NULL_DESC 0
%define CODE_DESC 0x8
%define DATA_DESC 0x10

%endif ;__GDT_INC_67343546FDCC56AAB872_INCLUDED__


Here's the build.sh

if test "`whoami`" != "root" ; then
echo "You must be logged in as root to build (for loopback mounting)"
echo "Enter 'su' or 'sudo bash' to switch to root"
exit
fi


if [ ! -e floppy.img ]
then
echo ">>> Creating new floppy image..."
mkdosfs -C floppy.img 1440 || exit
fi


echo ">>> Assembling bootloader..."

nasm Stage1/Stage1.asm -o Stage1.bin || exit


echo ">>> Assembling kernel loader..."

cd Stage2

nasm Stage2.asm -o KRNLDR.SYS || exit

cd

cd Desktop/MyOS

echo ">>> Assembling kernel..."

nasm Kernel/kernel.asm -o KRNL.SYS || exit

echo ">>> Adding bootloader to floppy image..."


dd status=noxfer conv=notrunc if=Stage1.bin of=floppy.img || exit


echo ">>> Copying kernel..."

rm -rf tmp-loop

mkdir tmp-loop && mount -o loop -t vfat floppy.img tmp-loop && cp Stage2/KRNLDR.SYS tmp-loop/ && cp KRNL.SYS tmp-loop/ && cp Stage2/GDT.inc tmp-loop

umount tmp-loop || exit

rm -rf tmp-loop || exit

rm -rf tmp-loop

echo '>>> Done!'

Andyhhp
Moderator
Posts: 387
Joined: Tue Oct 23, 2007 10:05 am
Location: 127.0.0.1
Contact:

Re: Stage2

Post by Andyhhp » Sun Aug 28, 2011 10:13 pm

What's the problem with my code


I have half a mind to delete this post. Are you expecting us to be psychic?

You give no explanaion of what you are expecting to happen, and what is not happening?

As a result, I am giving you a reading assignment:

http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/bugs.html

After reading that, please come back and ask your question in a more sensible way.

~Andrew
Image

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